U.S. money market funds have invested $11 billion in subprime debt, much of it managed by Bear Stearns. By David Evans
Bloomberg Markets October 2007
Unlike bank accounts, money market funds aren't insured by the federal government. They almost never fail. Unbeknownst to most investors, some of the largest money market funds today are putting part of their cash into one of the riskiest debt investments in the world: collateralized debt obligations backed by subprime mortgage loans.
Under SEC rules, money market managers must invest in securities with "minimal credit risks." Joseph Mason, a finance professor at Drexel University in Philadelphia and a former economist at the U.S. Treasury Department, says subprime debt in money market funds is far from safe.
"This creates tremendous risk for today's money market investors," says Mason, who wrote an 84-page report on CDOs this year. "Right now, I'm not comfortable investing anything in CDOs."
Money market managers are required to determine that their investments are safe and have high credit ratings, according to Rule 2a-7, a 1997 addition to the Investment Company Act of 1940.
"The money market fund shall limit its portfolio investments to those United States dollar-denominated securities that the fund's board of directors determines present minimal credit risks," the rule says.
Money market managers buy CDO commercial paper to boost returns and make their fund more attractive to investors, which in turn increases their income, money market fund inventor Bent says. "The higher rates sell more easily," he says. "They're doing it to suck the people in."
Fund managers are paid based on the total dollar amount invested in their funds, so more assets mean higher pay for managers.
People use a money market both to hold savings and serve as an account to buy securities and place the proceeds of sales. Bruce Bent, who in 1970 created the first money market fund, The Reserve Fund, says no money market fund should invest in subprime debt.
"It's inappropriate," Bent, 70, says. "It doesn't have a place in money market funds. When I created the first money market fund, I said you have to have immediate liquidity, safety and a reasonable rate of return. You also have to have a situation where you're not giving people headline risk."
Investors have sought safety during the subprime meltdown by moving their holdings to U.S. Treasuries and money market funds. On Aug. 8, just after the Bear Stearns hedge funds filed for bankruptcy protection, U.S. money market fund total assets reached a record high of $2.66 trillion, with investors pouring $49 billion into such funds in one week, according to the ICI. Note: Just some quotes here from long article, good read